This manuscript, developed by a group of leading chronic pain researchers and clinicians from around the world, aims to address the state of knowledge about fibromyalgia and identify ongoing challenges in the field of fibromyalgia and other chronic pain syndromes that may be characterized by pain centralization/amplification/hypersensitivity. There have been many exciting developments in research studies of the pathophysiology and treatment of fibromyalgia and related syndromes that have the potential to improve the recognition and management of patients with fibromyalgia and other conditions with fibromyalgia-like pain. However, much of the new information has not reached all clinicians, especially primary care clinicians, who have the greatest potential to use this new knowledge to positively impact their patients' lives. Furthermore, there are persistent misconceptions about fibromyalgia and a lack of consensus regarding the diagnosis and treatment of fibromyalgia. This paper presents a framework for future global efforts to improve the understanding and treatment of fibromyalgia and other associated chronic pain syndromes, disseminate research findings, identify ways to enhance advocacy for these patients, and improve global efforts to collaborate and reach consensus about key issues related to fibromyalgia and chronic pain in general.